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Urbanization

Internal and International Migration in South Asia: Drivers, Interlinkage and Policy Issues

Author : Ravi Srivastava, Arvind Kumar Pandey | 2016 |
Published By: UNESCO

The segmentation that is observed between internal and international migration appears to be a matter of degree. The main distinguishing features between internal and international migrants are the regulatory barriers they face, their skills, financial endowments, social networks and access to other recruitment channels. Migrants who have low skills and social networks suffer from lack of information about the labour markets, are engaged through intermediaries, employed at the lower end of the labour market, and are likely to suffer from a strikingly similar range of deprivations, both as internal and international migrants. The decision to embark upon boils down first to whether potential migrants have access to networks and recruitment channels, and second, whether they can meet the higher costs of migration. Workers can use migration ladders – internal or intra-regional migration to acquire resources or networks, and then migrate abroad. Skills demand and supply can also be a major issue in both international and internal migration. Migrants in both streams are predominantly low-skilled, but the national market and the international market both have a demand for skills, and individuals with skills can compete for the more attractive segment of the job markets in these professions. If training is provided at the lower skill levels also, it is very likely that it will have a favourable impact on job conditions. Thus, despite the differences, there are obvious links between internal and international migration which can be configured into national policies.

URL : 20170627123111.pdf

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