The SHRAM Bulletin

  • Internal Migration and Youth

    March 2017

    Migration is a widely employed survival strategy among the country’s youth. Much like gender, ‘age’ is a framework that facilitates, constrains and ultimately contours migrant experiences. Youth migration is a challenging and neglected phenomenon. Young migrants face many challenges particular to their age and yet little attention has been given to young migrants and young people affected by migration in the debate on migration. Youth constitute a valuable human capital resource base for India. With a high percentage of its population below the age of 30, and a projected labourforce expansion of 95 million by 2020, India is uniquely positioned to reap the benefits from its demographic dividend. This profusion of young people also represents a potential demographic dividend that can be garnered by destination communities through human capital investments and strong integration policies.

  • Focus on International Migrants

    January-February 2017

    Throughout human history, migration has been a courageous expression of the individual’s will to overcome adversity and to live a better life. Today, globalization, together with advances in communications and transportation, has greatly increased the number of people who have the desire and the capacity to move to other places. This new era has created challenges and opportunities for societies throughout the world. It also has served to underscore the clear linkage between migration and development, as well as the opportunities it provides for co-development, that is, the concerted improvement of economic and social conditions at both origin and destination. This month the SHRAM Bulletin focusses on the Influx of Migration in the context of the hardships faced by the migrants at the global level.

  • Seasonal Nature of Migration

    November 2016

    This month the SHRAM Bulletin focusses on seasonal and circular migration of labour. Seasonal migration for employment has become one of the most durable components of the livelihood strategies of people living in rural areas. Migration is not just by the very poor during times of crisis for survival and coping but has increasingly become an accumulative option for the poor and non-poor alike. Seasonal and circular migration is an important livelihood strategy for workers in developing countries and the construction industry. The impact of labour migration to this industry on workers and their families is an important research issue with significant policy implications. The SHRAM Publication sections features two important reports, one on Registration of Seasonal Workers and the other on Financial Inclusion of Poor.

  • Feminization of Migration

    October 2016

    The SHRAM Bulletin this month focusses on Feminization of Migration. Increasing feminization of migration in general and from South Asia in particular has spurred new issues and poses new challenges relating to institutions, processes and outcomes associated with female migration. Increasing remittances by women migrants have reframed the development narratives in some countries, such as Nepal and Sri Lanka. The majority of male migrants are engaged in production and construction. Women, on the other hand, are disproportionately engaged in the service sector in care and entertainment services. The SHRAM Publication section features two reports from Aajeevika Bureau one on “Studies, Stories and a Canvas Seasonal Labor Migration and Migrant Workers from Odisha” and the other titled “Whats on the Menu? Understanding Food Habits and Challenges of Migrant Workers in Ahmedabad”.

  • The SHRAM Bulletin

    September 2016

    The SHRAM Bulletin this month focusses on the Influx of Migration in Kerala. The number of migrants to the Gulf region and the pattern of migration in the last forty years has changed drastically. Migration has been a significant factor in reducing poverty, unemployment and relative deprivation in Kerala. The other very observant phenomenon is the inter-state migration happening in Kerala which means a lot of unskilled labour is coming to the state. There has been a steady migration to the Gulf countries, different parts of India and the world. Kerala is also at the cross-road of a transition and the consequences (positive and negative) of migration would play an important role in shaping the future of Kerala. The SHRAM Publication section features two interviews that specifically focusses on Kerala Migration. One is with Professor Irudaya Rajan from Centre for Development Studies and the other one is with Prof.Binitha Thampi from IIT, Madras.

  • The SHRAM Bulletin

    August 2016

    The SHRAM Bulletin this month focuses on the twin problems of migration and refugee. Migration and Refugees is a problem which go hand in hand and comes in limelight in international terms when they affect the relations between countries badly. If people are forced by the circumstances to migrate to some other country, the other country should give them refuge on human grounds. But if the refugees live in the host country for a prolonged period, they mix with the local people which changes the demographic situation there and causes many social economic problems, i.e., it increases the burden of the government in terms of economy, development, law and order as well as it causes social tensions also as it generates unemployment, poverty, unpatriotic feelings. The SHRAM Publication features two important insights one is Interview on “Gendered Migration in Kerala with Praveena Kodoth” and the other is A Study Report on Youth Migration by Debdatta Club.

  • The SHRAM Bulletin

    July 2016

    This month the SHRAM Bulletin focusses on Migration and Remittances. Remittances commonly refer to the flow of private unrequited transfer of money from migrants’ earnings outside their country of origin, back into their home country. Migrant remittances have recently surged to the forefront of development agendas worldwide, forming a very important component of a nation’s balance of payments, especially for developing countries like India. The impact of remittances is recognized in all developing regions of the universe, forming an important stream of foreign currency to most states and directly reaching millions of families – around 10 percent of the world’s population. This month the SHRAM Bulletin features an exclusive interview with Irudaya Rajan on “The Changing Dynamics of Migration in Kerala”. The SHRAM Publication section features Reports by Aajevika Bureau on Impact of Male Migration on Women in South Rajasthan.

  • The SHRAM Bulletin

    June 2016

    This month the SHRAM Bulletin focuses on Child Labour and its various aspects. Child labour continues to be a great concern in many parts of the world. The policy curbing child labour exists but the lack of enforcement of labour restrictions perpetuates child labour. This is manifested in variation in minimum age restriction in different types of employment. The International Labor Office reports that children work the longest hours and are the worst paid of all labourers. Children are employed in both formal and informal sectors. Among the occupations wherein children are engaged in work are construction work, domestic work and small-scale industries. The negative impact on the physiological and psychological levels of children includes specific concerns of child labour and its consequences on mental health. This month the SHRAM Bulletin features an Exclusive Interview with Umi Daniel focusing on Drought and Distress Migration in India. Also, the SHRAM Publication section features an exclusive interview with Umi Daniel focussing on Drought and Distress Migration and second is A Report by Debdatta Club on Youth Migration.

  • The SHRAM Bulletin

    May 2016

    The SHRAM Bulletin this month focusses on the health issues that migrant workers face at the destination locations, especially at the work place. Migrant workers are usually employed in locations with poor workplace security and welfare. They usually end up working for longer hours and lack basic health facilities. Policies and provisions that must ensure that they at least get basic health facilities are, at best, weak. The SHRAM Reports section this month features a study done by our partner Prayas Centre for Labour Research and Action (PCLRA) on Safety and Health of Labourers in Cotton Ginning Industries in Gujarat. Another study featured here is by Aajeevika Bureau on Child Labour in Cottonseed Production. Also this month International Labour Day, was observed by our SHRAM Partners with a variety of awareness drives, lectures and campaigns.

  • The SHRAM Bulletin

    April 2016

    The right to vote is a key political right in any democracy. However, there are millions who miss upon the opportunity to vote in the elections. The migrants who leave their native place in search of jobs, education, livelihood. The government both at Centre and State have still not been able to come up with a concrete plan as to how they can exercise their right to vote. This month the Bulletin focuses on Inclusive Elections and Internal Migration: The Challenges. The SHRAM publications section features SHRAM Interview Exclusive with Prof. Ashwani Kumar, and A Report by Aajeevika Bureau “Studies, Stories and a Canvas : Seasonal Labor Migration and Migrant Workers From Odisha”. The SHRAM in Action features intervention narratives, health campaign and an inspiring rescue story involving coordination between SHRAM partners across states.

  • SHRAM Bulletin

    January 2016

    Despite the number of children involved, the needs and interests of migrant children are largely absent from mainstream debates on child protection, child labour and migration. Children are affected both directly when children move alone and along with their parents and indirectly when children are left behind by parent's. Children and adolescents must matter in migration policies and debates. Children and adolescents affected by migration are particularly vulnerable and should receive special protection. The SHRAM publication this month features two case studies by Aajeevika Bureau one is Towards a Greater Financial Inclusion of Migrants and the other is Financial Behaviour Study. The SHRAM Research papers section highlights papers on how children are impacted due to migration.

  • The SHRAM Bulletin

    December 2015

    Economic and social reasons have always been the primary reasons for migration, but in recent times environmental change is seen to be a major reason that contributes to the decision to migrate. Climate change can cause a reduction in land, livelihood or habitat security for some communities. The impacts of climate change can be the tipping point which results in an individual or family deciding to migrate. This month the Bulletin focuses on Climate Change and Migration. The SHRAM publications section features an important insight on the Report by Aajeevika Bureau on Migrant Construction Workers in Ahmedabad: A Profile.

  • The SHRAM Bulletin

    July 2015

    Human Trafficking is a major international policy challenge. On the World Day Against Trafficking in Persons, SHRAM compiled a special feature of academic and news resources on human trafficking in Asia, exploring economic dimensions of trafficking, national and international policy frameworks, interrogating the demand-supply trafficking discourse, and gauging the extent of trafficking prevalent in Asia today. This July SHRAM in Action features a new partner project, intervention narratives, and an inspiring rescue story involving coordination between SHRAM partners across states. Their success reflects the key role source-destination linkages can play in interventions.

  • The SHRAM Bulletin

    May-June 2015

    A year after the Street Vendor’s Act was passed in Parliament, hawkers are still being evicted and persecuted across the country. Implementation of the Act is severely lacking, and there is a need to make public discourse around entitlement to urban space more inclusive. In June, SHRAM featured Street Vending in India: Rights, Livelihoods and Policy Challenges, to explore some of these issues. In May, SHRAM partners celebrated Labour Day with a variety of awareness drives, lectures and campaigns. SHRAM published a report on occupational health risks incured by migrant labourers in Ghaziabad, and featured a range of fresh research on internal migration in Asia.

  • Education for a better livelihood

    January volume 13, 2015

    One of the most common and pressing ills of labour market in India is the degree of 'skill mismatch'.This in turn is presented as the chief problem of the labour market and the main cause of the high rates of open unemployment among the youth. In 2013, 13.3 per cent of the youth between 15 and 29 years were unemployed. The relevance of vocational training to migrant labour is highlighted in the causal link between large presence of youth in the informal sector which in turn is comprised of migrant labour. Prima facie, it can be assumed that a large portion of migrant youth are deprived of any skill-based training and education, blocking entry into formal sector jobs. Given that India has one of the largest workforce in the 28-35 age group, it is imperative to build this wealth in order to realize the potential of the youth.

  • Amending Security and Welfare

    November volume 12, 2014

    Social security is the fundamental building block of just and equitable society. he modern concept of social security traces its origin to industrial revolution. According to International Labour Organization (ILO), "social protection floor" defines the basic set of rights, services nad facilities that every citizen enjoys. In the Indian context, given the vast and heterogeneous characteristic of the workforce, the informalization of employment has altered the meaning and scope of social security. On one hand, it denotes low level of social protection and high vulnerability and on the other hand, lack of institutional arrangements and policy. According to NSSO (2012), in 2009-10, 71 percent of workers in urban areas and 67 percent workers in rural areas were in the informal sector. These primarily constitutes migrants who are in transit from one contract to another. The issue of welfare and security of such workers has been bypassed in current political debate, setting the stage for worker unrests. There needs to be recognition of informal employment and how ongoing amendments can be extended to cover them.

  • Vulnerability at Doorstep: Health risks of migrant workers

    October volume 11, 2014

    Health care and human rights has intrinsic connections and has emerged as powerful concepts within the rights based approach in the backdrop of weakening public health system and restricted access to health care. In the context of migration-the volume and extent of migration and this nature-forced and voluntary, regular and irregular, clearly suggests that it poses a mahor challenge to public health. Migrant population remain disadvantageous in relation to the host community with regards to employment security and health services. The vulnerability of the migrant is further complicated by the combination of factors at the destination. For women and children, the issue of exclusion form essential healthcare presents complex challenge. There is an urgent need to replace the existing order of things throuh an shift in the institutional mechanism.

  • Decoding the Labour Reform propaganda

    September volume 10, 2014

    The ongoing debate on the labour reform in India had opened a plethora of questions. The need of flexibility in the existing archaic labour laws has been a long pending issue. Undoubtedly, the new government, intended in bringing much needed investment, re initiated the case by fast-tracking the reform process. However, report of the periodic employment and unemployment surveys (EUS) suggests that only states that only a small share of the total employed persons are in the organized sector. This leaves out almost 90 percent of the workforce outside the ambit of the law and regulation. Thus the agenda needs to be pput in perspective of contractual employment prevalent in India.

  • Dealing with Human Trafficking as a Migration phenomenon

    August volume 9, 2014

    Trafficking in persons is an organized crime in India with an estimated 21 crore generated in revenue (one-fifth of India's GDP). Trafficking in women and children has become a matter of grave concern. Today' almost every state is a part of this organized racket. Apart from sexual exploitation, off late children ares also trafficked for forced larbour, bondage and slavery. Trafficking is a grey area in migration studies which has been dealt from a different perspective in terms of advocacy, legal counsel, rights issues and the likes. Organizations dealing with internal migration have no scheme of rescue and rehabilitation of trafficked persons. However, there is distinct possibility of incorporating the issue of trafficking under the ambit migration study and advocacy analysis. Such linkages can be bridged if this can be looked through the same perspective as that for internal migration.

  • Feminization of migration: Women migrants in India

    July volume 8, 2014

    Research studies on migration has often assigned women as another household unit, migrating along with the earning member. Her role has been complementary in nature, as depicted in literature when it comes to detailing internal migration in India. Migration, as a physical phenomena has cultural and societal dimensions. When women migrate independently for work purposes, be it formal work or informal, it molds the existing stereotypes. Such changes are reflected through unequal economic outcomes in the labour market. Gender permeates every aspect of migration, from the decision to migrate to the actual process and the consequences.

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