SHRAM Reports

  • Welfare Schemes and Support Mechanisms

    Creative Practices and Policies for Better Inclusion of Migrant Workers: The Experience of Aajeevika Bureau

    Author : Rajiv Khandelwal,Amrita Sharma,Divya Varma | Published On: 2016

    Internal migration for livelihood, a widespread phenomenon across developing economies, has started to receive attention only recently. There are limited examples of practice or policy interventions that help vulnerable rural migrant workers cope with hardships of footloose movement, vagaries of informal labor market, and increasing alienation from urban spaces. Lately, civil society organisations in India have been at the forefront of initiatives bringing visibility to the phenomenon and made innovative strides in designing and delivering solutions. This paper reviews the experiences and impact of the work done by Aajeevika Bureau, a public service organisation in western India, which has initiated an informed discourse on migration by way of demonstrating scalable models.

  • Migration Patterns

    From a State of Low Return Aajeevika Bureau Makes Migrants Move

    Author : Rajiv Khandelwal | Published On: 2014

    Migrant workers earn poorly, have few prospects for advancement and are routinely subject to unfair labour practices. Not surprisingly therefore the labour and employment opportunities available to the migrants are usually short-term and highly prone to fluctuations in the market. Wages tend to remain poor in the case of casual labour in cities or farm labour in rural areas. Working and living conditions are appalling and the incidence of disease and injury is high. Coming from a background of low quality rural schooling that has provided few basic skills, tribal and rural poor migrants are unable to enter those sectors of the labour market that require at least some minimum level of education. Therefore the large employment opportunities in urban services are largely unavailable to rural migrants

  • Child Labour

    Child Labour in Cottonseed Production

    Author : Ashok Khandelwal,Sudhir Katiyar,Madan Vaishnav | Published On: 2008

    The study discusses the conditions of employment in relation to the provisions of four of the national laws, namely, Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986, Minimum Wages Act, 1948, Interstate Migrant Workers (CS & RE) Act, 1979 and Bonded Labour (Abolition) Act, 1976 and international instruments in ILO Convention 138 on Minimum Age and 182 on the worst forms of child labour. While ILO Conventions have not been ratified by the Government of India, the MNC Monsanto, the main stakeholder in business, promises strict compliance with these conventions in its Human Rights Policy. Employment of children per se in agriculture operations is not illegal according to the Child Labour Act. However most of the provisions of this Act that regulate employment of children are being violated. In fact significant provisions of all the above mentioned Acts that are oriented to welfare of the workers simply remain dead letters.

  • Field Initiatives

    Towards a Greater Financial Inclusion of Migrants

    Author : Rupal Kulkarni | Published On: 2016

    Seasonal distress migration within India is often characterized by erratic incomes and employment, shorter work life and early retirement, cash flow volatilities at source, debt burden and exclusion from formal financial institutions. With the help of detailed case studies from southern Rajasthan, this paper examines how seasonal migrant workers and their families manage many such socially recognized risks; What are some of the informal coping mechanisms that households employ to reduce vulnerabilities induced by migration; And what role do targeted financial services play in protective social security of migrant workers? The economic choices and vulnerabilities of migrant workers and possible interventions to mitigate associated risks are analyzed with respect to three key elements viz. financial planning and management of cash flows; asset allocation and wealth creation; and protection from and diversification of risks.

  • Financial Inclusion

    Expenditure Patterns and Saving Habits Among Construction Workers, Domestic Workers, Rickshaw Pullers and Pillow Makers in Ghaziabad

    Author : Sahbhagi Shikshan Kendra | Published On: 2015

    Circular migration in India is likely to grow and the government, NGOs and other stakeholders urgently needs to take steps to make it a more remunerative and less painful process for the poor. This study explores various dimensions of the expenditure of the migrants at destination and will focus on their expenditure pattern, the constructive usage of earning, saving methods, strategies employed during economic crisis, awareness and accessibility of schemes and policies meant for their economic empowerment.

  • Welfare Schemes and Support Mechanisms

    Knowledge Creation and Information Sensitization of Beneficiary Groups

    Author : Grameen Development Services (GDS) | Published On: 2014

    Grameen Development Services (GDS)had organized an awareness camp for the migrant workers at Shramik Sahatya Kendras (2SK) in order to promote information regarding the services and schemes that are meant for the benefit of the migrant workers and their families. This report summarizes the activities undertaken by the organization and the importance of such camps is also made implicit. Field organizations, from time to time, have to create such spaces of information sharing and knowledge dissemination.

  • Health

    Addressing Health needs of Migrant Workers

    Author : Disha Foundation | Published On: 2011

    Internal labor migration has become an important livelihood strategy for many poor groups across India. However, this segment of the population faces exclusion from the various mainstream programs such as education, health, adequate living conditions, minimum wages and freedom from exploitation and harassment. Currently, there are no structural policies or programs targeting the migrant issues in totality. Effective implementation of the available programs, as well convergence of these programs (health, education, insurance and food security), at both inter and intra state levels would be important to improve the status of migrants’ health. This report brings out the health mitigation strategy adopted by Disha Foundation for the migrant workers in Nashik. Nasik is important destination for tribal and non-tribal labour migrants, and thus crucial to intervene and advocate in favour of migrants to increase the outcome of seasonal migration.

  • Distress Migration

    Skill Development Initiatives for Young Migrants: Increasing Earning Opportunities

    Author : Udyama | Published On: 2014

    Migrant workers are compelled and pushed by hardships to take up jobs which are underpaying in nature and exploitative. The issue of earning a livelihood drives marginalized and destitute families to migrate in search of jobs without prior knowledge and any special skill set at their disposal. Thus, the earning power of such unskilled migrants remains low even after years of hard work at the destination. UDYAMA has documented three such case studies, helping the young and desperate migrants to acquire a better earning opportunities.

  • Labour Markets

    Creative Practices and Policies for Better Inclusion of Migrant Workers: The Experience of Aajeevika Bureau

    Author : Rajiv Khandelwal,Amrita Sharma,Divya Varma | Published On: 2012

    Internal migration for livelihood, a widespread phenomenon across developing economies, has started to receive attention only recently. There are limited examples of practice or policy interventions that help vulnerable rural migrant workers cope with hardships of footloose movement, vagaries of informal labor market, and increasing alienation from urban spaces. Lately, civil society organisations in India have been at the forefront of initiatives bringing visibility to the phenomenon and made innovative strides in designing and delivering solutions. This paper reviews the experiences and impact of the work done by Aajeevika Bureau, a public service organisation in western India, which has initiated an informed discourse on migration by way of demonstrating scalable models.

  • Situational Analysis of Destination workplace: A Study

    Author : People's Action for National Integration (PANI) | Published On: 2014

    Sohawal and Amaniganj block in Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh are very much deprived in terms employment, agricultural production, marketing and rural development. Social negligence and high prevalence of caste rigidity leads to forced migration of the landless labourers. The major destination of the labourers ends at Delhi, in the Naraina Industrial Area. During the implementation of Migration project, data was collected and analysed. Through the data analysis it has been found that out of 11052 migrants 28.54% migrated to New Delhi in Narayana Loha Mandi to work as daily wage labors and they are purely un-skilled laborers.

  • Political Inclusion of Seasonal Migrant Workers in India

    Author : Aajeevika Bureau,Grameen Development Services (GDS),Grameen Evam Samajik Vikas Sansthan (GSVS),Disha Foundation,Ghoghardiha Prakhand Swarajya Vikas Sangh (GPSVS) | Published On: 2014

    Do seasonal migrants in India vote? If not, how do they ensure that they remain politically relevant in the villages they leave behind? In cities, where they spend a large part of their working life, what are the ways in which they get their voices heard? This paper has looked at the participation of migrant workers in political processes – both through the institutionalized electoral process and through other lesser known avenues of asserting political agency. Done in a multi-location format it has covered respondents from 15 locations spread across five states of India – Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Maharashtra.

  • Education

    Provision and Delivery of Services to Inter-State Migrant Workers

    Author : Yugantar | Published On: 2014

    A brief overview into the working of Yugantar in the area of service delivery and the mechanism adopted for the welfare of migrant communities in Hyderabad. The organization functions in the delivery of three social services-financial services, health systems and skill development. The organization has been engaged with welfare activities involving factory workers and those working in commercial establishments like shops and hotels.

  • Education

    Empowerment of Migrant Workers for Sustainable Livelihoods

    Author : Sampark Foundation | Published On: 2014

    Based on the organization’s learning experience of over five years with migrant workers in the construction industry, Sampark initiated the project ‘Empowerment of Migrant Workers for their sustainable Livelihoods’ with the migrant worker communities in Bangalore, Karnataka. The identified target area for the project implementation is the construction sector in Bangalore city which is populated with interstate and intrastate migrants.

  • Urbanization

    A Slum Narrative: Migrant Labourers in Bhubaneswar City

    Author : PRATIKAR | Published On: 2014

    This report attempts to analyze the initiative undertaken by the organization PRATIKAR to understand the condition of urban slums in Bhubaneswar. The organisation documents the case of Saliasahi slum of Bhubaneswar city, Khordha district of Odisha state, which has been the home for thousands of migrants and the inherent factors that has led to this mass migration. It also describes the work of the organization in providing services, skills and social security to the migrants at the destination place.

  • Gender

    BIDESIA, A project on Migrant Labour: Survey Report of Nimpara District

    Author : Darbar Sahitya Sansad (DSS) | Published On: 2014

    Darbar Sahitya Sansad has been focusing on promoting alternative livelihoods for women and youth in the disaster prone districts like,Khurda, Puri, Balasore and Jagatsingpur districts in coastal Odisha since a decade. DSS has emphasized on women and youth by promoting Self Help Groups and their federations to mobilize the community cooperation, solidarity and build financial powers at grassroots. Thus the issue of migration has so far been dealt in isolation with a single approach of livelihood promotion. Again it has been restricted to the source only, not at destinations. The challenge is how to bring an informative and right based approach to the process and make it a holistic one and improve the socio economic status of the poor Oriya migrant workers and their families.

  • Education

    Migration Survey Report: Kendrapada, Odisha

    Author : Gram-Utthan | Published On: 2014

    A survey by NGO Gram-Utthan was carried out in seventeen Gram Panchayats in the Kendrapada district of coastal Odisha in order to asses the profile of migration, its trend and plan project outcomes for direct and indirect beneficiaries of the migration program.

  • Education

    Migration Study Report: Kalahandi District, Odisha

    Author : Kalahandi Organization for Agriculture and Rural Marketing Initiative (KARMI) | Published On: 2014

    Odisha is one of the most backward states in India having a history of natural disasters, presence of large scale poverty, low level of literacy and prone to distress migration. Drought and floods are common phenomenon in the state. This has led to a formation of a vicious poverty cycle trapping the small and marginal farmers who are dependent on their land holdings for income generation. Acute pressure on the land due to growing population and poor sectoral diversification, most of the people are reeling under acute poverty and mass unemployment. Every year in the absence of adequate alternative source of wage employment and self-employment, the poor and ultra poor category households are pushed out from their hearth and home for a living in far off places during lean agricultural season.

  • Socio-economic Factors

    Adverse Impacts of Migration

    Author : Madhyam Foundation | Published On: 2014

    The report provides a description of one the districts of western Odisha, which has high incidence of distress migration. Individuals and families have been migrating to distant locations in search of better livelihood opportunities. Madhyam foundation documents the case of Nayagarh district and the inherent factors that has lead to migration to other states. It also describes the work of the organization in ensuring a safe and secure lives of the migrants at the destination places.

  • Welfare Schemes and Support Mechanisms

    Involvement of PRIs in Migration Program Implementation

    Author : Udayama | Published On: 2014

    This document presents a case study of involvement of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRI) and active people's participation in successful implementation of the migration project by UDAYAMA. Particularly, the process of registration of migrants and provision of Identity cards by the organization has been facilitated by the participation of the Panchayats of Titlagarh and Bangomunda in Bolangir district (western Odisha). This has enabled in creation of resource database of migrant profiles with the organization which can be used in advocacy with local governments at a later stage.

  • Welfare Schemes and Support Mechanisms

    Activity Report: Field Visits to Migrant Worker Sites

    Author : Youth Council for Development Alternatives (YCDA) | Published On: 2014

    A three-day field visit was organized by Youth Council for Development Alternatives (YCDA) in association with Shramika Sahayata O suchana Kendra to Hyderabad to review the conditions of the migrant workers from Odisha living and working in Hyderabad. This report summarises the finding of the organization regarding the dwelling, working conditions of migrant workers along with dialogue and discussion with government authorities on inclusion of migrant families under the existing development and livelihood schemes of Andhra Pradesh.

  • Project Report on Migrant families (PARDA), Odisha

    Author : People's Awareness for Rural Development Agency (PARDA) | Published On: 2013

    Project completion report on the firs pilot phase program for migrant workers in the Nuapada block, Nuapada district of western Odisha. The report details out the organization's activities and programs for migrant workers, the methodology adopted in rescue and rehabilitation of migrant labourers and support mechanisms.

  • Brick Kiln Workers

    Migration Study Report: Bargarh District, Odisha

    Author : Debadutta Club | Published On: 2013

    A report on the migrants from Bargarh district of Odisha, it contains the socio-economic profile of the region,which is prone to seasonal migration. Western Odisha, of which this district is a part of, has a long history of seasonal and distress migration to the neighboring states in the south. This report summarizes the migration profile of one such block (Gaisilat) under Bargarh district.

  • Education

    Nameless Traveller

    Author : Mobile Creches | Published On: 2012

    A documentary on the migrant construction workers in Delhi and their families. The video captures in stills the lives of the migrant families at construction sites and how Mobile Creches is involved in intervention program for migrant children.

  • Financial Inclusion

    Understanding Risks to Cash Flows of Migrants

    Author : Aajeevika Bureau | Published On: 2009

    The presentation showcases the issue which affect the cash flow/income of migrants at their destination work places. It outlines the work of an Non-Governmental Organization (NGO), Rajasthan Shram Sarathi Association, promoted by Ajeevika Bureau to provide financial services exclusively to migrant households in Rajasthan.

  • Child Labour

    Migrant Labour at Brick Kilns in Andhra Pradesh: A Human Rights Perspective

    Author : Prayas Centre for Labour Research and Action (PCLRA) | Published On: 2013

    There are 50,000 brick kilns all over India employing on an average 100 workers i.e., male workers are counted only who are on the muster rolls of the employers. The brick kiln industry, which involves the molding and firing of bricks from clay, is a significant employer of women and children as well. The work is seasonal in nature and attracts casual labour from surrounding districts and neighboring states and account of inter-state and intra-state migration.

  • Labour Markets

    Migrant Labourers of Shergarh Block Working in the Ginning Sector of Gujarat

    Author : Jai Bhim Vikas Shikshan Sansthan, JBVSS | Published On: 2010

    Most of the migrants went to various districts of Gujarat, M.P etc. for earning their livelihood. Out of these, most of them went to Gujarat and are indulged in Ginning Sector as a labour. They are facing many problems related to their work place, environment, residential, health, family and personal problems. Therefore, a detailed study of their situation was undertaken on issues such as health, family, working environment, labour rights etc.

  • Case Study (Iqrarnama (Agreement) hai to dar kahe ka)

    Author : PEPUS | Published On: 2013

    This is the case study of Mr. Chhedilal resident of village- Kamalapur ,Block- Kaudihar ,Distt.- Allahabad, who is fireman doing the work of firing in brick kiln. [PEPUS].

  • Legal Provisions

    Status of NREGA Implementation: Grassroots Learning and Ways Forward

    Author : Samarthan – Centre for Development Support | Published On: 2006

    NREGA has reduced distress migration. The sample villages reported that migration has decreased considerably due to availability of jobs at the local level. Labourers are able to spend more time with their families as they do not have to migrate in search of work. The guaranteed employment increased income of labour, and was used for fulfilling daily needs like food, clothing etc. and ensure dignity of labour.

  • Construction Workers

    Children on Construction Sites

    Author : Mumbai Mobile Creches | Published On: 2012

    Million of unskilled porters, bricklayers and other low-caste laborers have left their native villages to escape extreme rural poverty and find a job in big cities. These migrant workers are spread across the country and travel from one area of work to another along with their families. They live in temporary settlements, sometimes provided by the construction company, for the duration of the construction project and then move to another site. The children living on construction sites often suffer from malnutrition, under nourishment, accidents, and innumerable health problems. According to a Mobile Creches’s study, about 70 per cent of children living on construction sites suffer from malnutrition, compared with the national average of 21 per cent.

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