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Reports

  • Labor Migration in Asia: Building Effective Institutions

    Author : Asian Development Bank Institute | 2016 |

    This report is an output of the Fifth Round table on Labour Migration in Asia held in Shanghai, the Peoples Republic of China, in early 2015. The report presents latest available data on the main trends in migration from and within Asia. It also provides a discussion of labor migration flows to Asian and Middle Eastern countries.

  • Urbanization

    India\'s Urban Awakening: Building Inclusive Cities Sustaining Economic Growth

    Author : | 2016 |

    The economic reform has already unleashed investment and growth, offering its citizens rich opportunities. Although the Indian economy has been resilient so far, the key issue now is how to sustain this momentum. Turning around its cities and releasing their dynamism will be critical to India's future economic growth.

  • Migration Patterns

    Climate change and migration: A review of the literature

    Author : Oscar Gomez | 2016 |

    This review consists of three major sections, one presenting the background of the discussions, then another covering major themes and debates, followed by a highlighting of some observed gaps and opportunities. It is followed by a select annotated bibliography. Since so far the main concern has been generating knowledge about the climate-change/migration link, the sub-sections in the first and second part follow the scientific process of defining the problem, choosing a methodology, describing mechanisms and proposing solutions.

  • Urbanization

    India: Urban Poverty Report 2009

    Author : United Nations Development Program (UNDP) | 2016 |

    This report examines the pace of urbanisation in India and growth trends of Indian Economy and tries to build a relationship between urbanisation and economic growth. Urban poverty with over 25% of urban population is largely concentrated in small and medium towns. Though the incidence of poverty is lower in larger cities, the poor face acute shortage of basic amenities there.

  • Migration Patterns

    Migration as a Tool for Development Policy: The Need for Caution

    Author : Ronald Skeldon | 2016 |

    The thrust of these four points is that any attempt to assess the impact of migration and development, or to plan for it, needs to incorporate internal migration and not just the minority of international migrants.

  • Migration Patterns

    Causes of Rural Urban Migration in India: Challenges and Policy Issues

    Author : Tarannum Siddiqui,R. C. Tyagi | 2016 |

    Rural to Urban migrations are caused by a variety of factors. In nutshell major factors of migration are 1-Marriage, 2-Employment, 3-Education and 4-Lack of Security. Urban centers provide vast scope for employment in various sectors and also offer modem facilities of life. Thus, they act as ‘magnets’ for the migrant population and attract people from outside. In other words, cities pull people from rural areas. This is known as “pull factor”. People also migrate due to ‘push factors’ when they do not find means of livelihood in their home villages, they are ‘pushed’ out to the nearby or distant towns. Millions of people those migrated from their far-off villages to the big cities. Their home villages had virtually rejected them as surplus population which the rural resources of land were not able to sustain any longer.

  • Labour Markets

    Outmigration from Hill Region of Uttarakhand: Magnitude, Challenges and Policy Options

    Author : Rajendra P. Mamgain | 2016 |

    The paper examines the demographic changes in hill and plain regions of Uttarakhand. The dynamics of out-migration and its impact on household economy are analysed. It also argues how migration has almost failed to generate any multiplier effects in the village economy. The hardships of village life in general and women in particular in Hill Region of Uttarakhand in the wake of increasing out-migration understood. It analyses the nature and quality of livelihoods in hill districts of the State and shows how these are highly backbreaking yet contributing very low incomes to a large majority of workers therein. The policy paradigm and its failures to create remunerative employment opportunities in Hill Region and resultant out-migration for creating present demographic vacuum are discussed.

  • Gender

    The Situation of Women Migrant Domestic Workers in Bahrain

    Author : Worldwide Movement for Human Rights | 2016 |

    Women migrant domestic workers face long (or undefined) working hours, low salaries and late payment of salaries and poor or repressive living conditions. According to a 2005 ILO study, in Bahrain the average number of work hours for female domestic workers was 108 per week, in Kuwait 101, and in the UAE 105. These women had an average of 1 day off per month. All those interviewed for the study spoke of control on their freedom of movement. Every woman interviewed reported that her passport was held by their employer. None of them were given remuneration for working overtime. This information was confirmed to the UN Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants and three other special procedure mandate holders: many women domestic migrant workers have to work 15 to 17 hours a day, seven days a week.

  • Migration Patterns

    Labor Migration, Skills & Student Mobility in Asia

    Author : Asian Development Bank Institute | 2016 |

    Labor migration from and within Asia is a key and growing component of international migration flows, and the joint roundtable by the Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI), the International Labour Organization (ILO), and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) on labor migration in Asia bears witness to this. In recent years, Asia has provided a large part of the more skilled migration inflows to OECD countries, even as the global competition to attract skilled and talented workers has intensified. Most of the flows, however, are intra-Asian, and consist mainly of lesser skilled labor.

  • Gender

    Harnessing Knowledge on the Migration of Highly Skilled Women

    Author : International Organization for Migration (IOM) | 2016 |

    The migration of highly skilled women is a phenomenon of growing significance for most countries. Between 2000 and 2011, the number of tertiary-educated migrant women in OECD countries rose by 80 per cent. This increase not only represented a twofold growth in the number of tertiary-educated, native-born women, but also exceeded the 60 per cent increase in the number of tertiary educated migrant men (DIOC 2000 and DIOC 2011). Moreover, according to data from the DIOC 2000/01, the emigration rate from sending countries was 4 per cent higher for tertiary-educated women than it is for tertiary-educated men (13.9% as compared to 9.7%). In Africa, the average emigration rates of tertiary educated women are considerably higher than those of tertiary-educated men (27.7% and 17.1%, respectively); this phenomenon is also seen in Latin America, where the rates are 21.1 per cent for women and 17.9 per cent for men. In terms of the global distribution of highly skilled migrant women, one-third (34%) of tertiary-educated migrant women residing in OECD countries come from Asia – primarily, the Philippines, China and India – while the four leading destination countries for tertiary-educated migrant women are Canada, Israel, the United States and the United Kingdom (DIOC, 2005/06).

  • Gender

    Climate Change and Migration in Bangladesh: Gender Perspective

    Author : United Nations (UN) | 2016 |

    As part of the flagship project, Reducing Vulnerability of Women Affected by Climate Change through Viable Livelihood Options, UN Women Bangladesh has been exploring the impacts of migration on women caused by climate change-related phenomena. Together with research partners, the Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies, UN Women studied 10 districts in three different eco-zones in Bangladesh to understand the district-specific implications that women face due to male migratory trends.

  • Gender

    Migration and Women The Lives and Tragedies

    Author : United Nations (UN) | 2016 |

    The study found that migration can help families to stay afloat, and also improve their financial condition. In a disaster-stricken country like Bangladesh, migration is becoming a common adaptation strategy to the impacts of climate change. But there is a vital need to support those who migrate as well as those who remain behind. UN Women has released the results of the BCAS migration study that investigates the migratory trends, the issues, and offers policy recommendations for government, and the private sector, to support the gendered dimensions of migration.

  • Gender

    Final Evaluation Reducing Vulnerability of Women Affected by Climate Change through Livelihood Options

    Author : United Nations (UN) | 2016 |

    The goal of the project was to ensure that women in communities vulnerable to the impact of climate change access sustainable livelihoods and are agents of change in climate change risk mitigation policy. To understand the results/contributions and lessons learned in the areas of gender equality and climate change the evaluation was planned which is also expected to feed learning into UN Women’s efforts to promote gender equality in Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation in the post-2015 development scenario in Bangladesh. The project had significant impacts over policy and stakeholder’s decision making. UN Women and the Bangladesh Climate Change Trust (BCCT) initiated a series of training workshops on Mainstreaming Gender Equality in Climate Change for government officials. With improved knowledge of and capacity in gender mainstreaming from the perspective of rights in climate change efforts, relevant actors are sensitized to contributing towards gender equality within their sphere of influence.

  • Health

    Migration Health Research to Advance Evidence Based Policy and Practice in Sri Lanka

    Author : Sharika Peiris,Davide Mosca,Kolitha Wickramage | 2016 |

    The rapid economic development over the past few years has accelerated Sri Lanka's global connectivity with increased population mobility both within and across our national borders. It is well recognized that public health is greatly influenced by population mobility. Protecting the health and well-being of migrant populations, their families and host populations is paramount to ensure sustainable development in the country. Since its adoption in 2008, Sri Lanka has progressed rapidly in advancing the 61st World Health Assesmbly resolution on Health of Migrants. My commitment to implementing the migration health agenda extended from my tenure as the Minister of Health to my Presidency. In 2009, the Ministry of Health with the technical and financial assistance of the International Organization for Migration spearheaded a national programme to ensure better health outcomes for the various types of migrant flows; inbound, outbound and internal migration.

  • Migration Patterns

    Migration in the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) and Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)

    Author : Mariam Traore Chazalnoël,Eva Mach,Dina Ionesco | 2016 |

    As of 15 July 2016, 162 countries have submitted their INDCs, with a technical focus on how to reduce CO2 emissions and reach mitigation targets. Adaptation is often considered as mainly the concern of developing countries – evidenced by the abundance of references to adaptation measures in their submissions. However, it is important for all countries to consider that insufficient mitigation efforts now will most likely mean a need for more adaptation measures in the future. Both mitigation and adaption efforts have immediate and future impacts on the migration patterns of people.

  • Migration Patterns

    Ocean, Environment, Climate Change and Human Mobility

    Author : International Organization for Migration (IOM) | 2016 |

    Some States are starting to acknowledge the benefits of migration and migrants’ potential in disaster risk management and adaptation, including through the transfer of competencies or targeted investments. By removing transfer fees or even by creating special funds, Samoa and Indonesia have facilitated fund transfers from their diaspora. Some of these funds are intended to help rebuild after natural disasters. Other countries innovate in investment mechanisms in order to attract their diaspora’s capital towards climate change adaptation projects (for instance, projects that could include marine ecosystems restoration or the development of sustainable fishing techniques).

  • Migration Patterns

    Access to Microcredit Opportunities for Returned Migrants during and beyond IOM Support

    Author : International Organization for Migration (IOM) | 2016 |

    The purpose of this study is to gather information about specific opportunities and challenges for returnees who wish to apply for a microcredit in five target countries: The Islamic Republic of Iran, Mongolia, the Federal Republic of Nigeria, the Republic of Senegal and the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. These countries were chosen because of: (a) their high number of voluntary returns under AVRR programmes from Switzerland; (b) their high relevance to Switzerland, which aims to promote voluntary returns to these countries; or (c) reported difficulties to start a solid business with the granted amount.

  • Migration Patterns

    Sociology of Migration and Development

    Author : United Nations Development Program (UNDP) | 2016 |

    Migration and development are interdependent processes, driving change and stimulating new connections between individuals and societies in fields of economics, trade, technology, culture and religion. Human mobility is a means to diversify and strengthen livelihoods, as well as an avenue to escape persecution, conflict and disaster in times of adversity. With more than a billion people on the move in the world – internally and internationally – there is a need to ensure the protection of all migrants so that the full social and economic potential of migration can be realised in both countries of origin and destination.

  • Migration Patterns

    Gender and Migraion

    Author : Hazel Reeves,Susie Jolly | 2016 |

    This Overview Report on Gender and Migration takes a broad approach to migration – it looks at the gender dynamics of both international and the lesser-researched internal migration and the interconnections between the two. People may choose to migrate, or have no choice, or the decision may fall somewhere on the continuum between the two. This report therefore covers both forced and voluntary migration, including covering economic and other voluntary migrants, refugees and internally displaced persons and trafficked people. These migrants in turn come through regular (conforming to legal requirements) or irregular channels.

  • Gender

    Female Migration Outcomes II

    Author : | 2016 |

    The outcomes of migration can be diverse and there are clearly lessons to be learned about how to maximise the benefits of migration for women. With this in mind, this special issue sets out to ask the following questions: What do we do to ensure that women do benefit from migration, whether in terms of enjoyment of rights or successful integration? What are the difficulties or challenges that one faces in ensuring that women do benefit from migration on an equal footing? What enabled women to benefit from migration in certain contexts? And what can be learnt from this?

  • Socio-economic Factors

    Modern Slavery in East Asia

    Author : | 2016 |

    The research found that exploitation and rights violations occur during all phases of their migration. The prevalence of practices associated with modern slavery amongst Indonesian and Filipina domestic workers is high in Hong Kong and especially in Singapore – both key destinations for migrant domestic workers in Asia.

  • Migration Patterns

    World Migration Report 2015

    Author : International Organization for Migration (IOM) | 2016 |

    Overall patterns in migration and urbanization can be observed. There is however a lack of empirical data and the absence of systematically collected information of a comparative quality and content, especially in low income countries. This lack of data inhibits a deep understanding of migrants in urban environments. Cities, with their high concentration of migrants, often from different places of origin, offer a unique spatial domain for researching and understanding the dynamics of migration, urbanization and the intersection of national and local governance and policy.

  • Migration Patterns

    Cities Welcoming Refugees and Migrants: Enhancing Effective Urban Governance in an Age of Migration

    Author : United Nations (UN) | 2016 |

    In 2015 and 2016, two global agendas were adopted under the auspices of the United Nations: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and the New Urban Agenda. Both are internationally negotiated sets of commitments and priorities which, while not formally binding, can be considered directive for governments and non-governmental actors worldwide. These agendas have considerable political impetus as well as institutional engagement across the international system for their implementation. Both agendas call explicitly for attention to migrants and migration.

  • Migration Patterns

    Migration in India: NSS 49th Round

    Author : Government of India | 2016 |

    The present report contains the results based on the ‘Central Sample’ data collected in the 49th round on several aspects of migration, during the reference period, such as rate & reasons of migration by sex and of households in different social categories of the population, return migration, out-migration and occupational status of migrants as well as the type of structure of their residence before & after migration. This report has been divided into seven chapters under three major sections and begins with ‘Highlights’ of the survey. Section I provides information of general nature viz. Introduction, Concepts & Definitions and Sample Design & Estimation Procedure in chapters I to III respectively. Section II summarises the findings of the survey in four chapters entitled Migrant Households, Migrants, Outmigrants & Return migrants in chapters IV to VII respectively. Section III presents detailed tables under the title ‘Appendix’.

  • Migration Patterns

    Planning and Implementation of National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme in Haryana: A Process Study

    Author : S Kaushil,S M S Yadav,P Durgaprasad | 2016 |

    The report processes, analyses and summarises the official and people’s perceptions as well as the research team’s observations as per the NIRD’s prescribed formats and parameters. It brings out the strengths as well as weaknesses of the operationalisation of NREGS in Haryana, points to the evident as well as perceived reasons for the same, and putsforth some concluding observations, suggestions and prescriptions for sprucing up the process of implementation of NREGS in the State, for which the report does indeed find both the need and the scope.

  • Migration Patterns

    Planning and Implementation of National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme in Bihar - A Process Study

    Author : P Durgaprasad,K Hanumantha Rao,Nil Ratan | 2016 |

    The Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme has been launched in Bihar as a sequel to the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA), 2005. It guarantees 100 days of employment in a financial year to any rural household whose adult members are willing to do unskilled manual work. In case of failure to provide the employment, the worker is to be compensated with unemployment allowance. This Scheme has been launched in 23 districts of Bihar in February 2006. Simultaneously, the State has also introduced the Bihar State Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (BREGS) in another 15 districts with funds and on the same pattern as the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS).

  • Migration Patterns

    Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of Migrant Children and Children Born to Migrant Parents: Challenges, Good Practices and Recommendations

    Author : United Nations (UN) | 2016 |

    Ensuring that all migrants, irrespective of their migration status, are free to enjoy their economic, social and cultural rights (ESCR) is a fundamental challenge for the universality of human rights proclaimed in 1948. The vast majority of children who move internationally, whether accompanied by their families or as unaccompanied minors, are seeking greater enjoyment of their rights. In this regard, it is important to remember that the deprivation of ESCR in countries of origin is a root cause of migration.

  • Migration Patterns

    Labour Migration, Skills and Student Mobility in Asia

    Author : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) | 2016 |

    Labor migration from and within Asia is a key and growing component of international migration flows, and the joint roundtable by the Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI), the International Labour Organization (ILO), and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) on labor migration in Asia bears witness to this. In recent years, Asia has provided a large part of the more skilled migration inflows to OECD countries, even as the global competition to attract skilled and talented workers has intensified. Most of the flows, however, are intra-Asian, and consist mainly of lesser skilled labor.

  • Gender

    Gender and Migration: Negotiating Rights A Women Movement Perspective

    Author : Indu Agnihotri,Neetha N,Indrani Mazumdar | 2016 |

    This study grew out of a twofold engagement with the changes taking place in women’s lives in the era of liberalization and globalization. On one side was the social science researchers’ and women’s studies’ engagement with analysis based on the explicit study of categories, quantitative data, and qualitative observation of relations and developments. On the other side were the compulsions and experience of those engaged in organizing women into mass organizations, whose wide outreach and observations of social processes, had thrown up several questions that they felt were being ignored or sidelined in policy discussions. The idea of this research in fact grew in response to the demand by mass organizations, for better documentation of women’s migration in India amid reports from activists of great increases in and new and more vulnerable forms of female labour migration from the 1990s onwards.

  • Migration Patterns

    Migrants In Countries In Crisis: A Comparative Study of Six Crisis Situations

    Author : Robtel Neajai Pailey,Alessandra Bravi,Maegan Hendow | 2016 |

    This report presents emerging findings from ongoing research on migrants caught in countries experiencing crisis. This research broadens the evidence base on the situations of migrants in crisis-affected countries, particularly focusing on socio-economic and long-term implications at the micro-, meso- and macro-levels. Conducted by the International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD), the University of Oxford’s International Migration Institute (IMI), and local research partners, ongoing research presented in this report is being carried out in 11 countries1 on six specific crisis situations2 . This report presents the emerging findings and common themes identified from this research thus far. Following the completion of the data collection and fieldwork phase, more comprehensive analysis will be undertaken over the course of 2016 and early 2017 in the form of reports on each case study, as well as an extensive comparative report. A separate and parallel comparative research paper will also be developed covering European responses to crises.

  • Migration Patterns

    Remittances in Conflict and Crises: How Remittances Sustain Livelihoods in War, Crises, and Transitions to Peace

    Author : Micah N. Bump,Patricia Weiss Fagen | 2016 |

    Although migrant workers, refugees and immigrants have been sending money, goods and ideas home for millennia, until about a decade ago donors and international finance agencies paid little attention to the phenomenon. Interest has grown exponentially as statistics show what we now call migrant remittances to be among the most important contributing factors to national economies in several countries. Nearly all the countries in the conflict, war-to-peace transition, and crisis categories are highly dependent on remittances. The slow recovery of livelihoods and persistent violence or repression ensure high levels of migration and the need for remittances in such countries for several years after conflict and crises have ended. By all accounts, migrant remittances reduce poverty in important ways in developing countries. Research shows that migrants transfer funds and invest in their countries of origin at times when international investment has all but disappeared. By serving these purposes in countries emerging from or still experiencing conflicts.

  • Migration Patterns

    Refugee Economies: Rethinking Popular Assumptions

    Author : Louise Bloom,Josiah Kaplan,Alexander Betts,Naohiko Omata | 2016 |

    It has long been recognised that a better alternative to protracted limbo and long-term encampment is what has been framed as ‘self-reliance’ – essentially finding ways to offer refugees freedom of movement, the right to work, and support in the pursuit of their own economic opportunities, pending going home. In order to try to support such opportunities, the international community has been through numerous historical attempts to close the socalled ‘relief-to-development gap’, and to try to include refugees within development plans.

  • Migration Patterns

    Migration and Global Environmental Change: Future Challenges and Opportunities

    Author : Foresight | 2016 |

    This report considers migration in the context of environmental change over the next 50 years. The scope of this report is international: It examines global migration trends, but also internal migration trends particularly within low-income countries, which are often more important in this context. The challenges of migration in the context of environmental change require a new strategic approach to policy. Policy makers will need to take action to reduce the impact of environmental change on communities yet must simultaneously plan for migration. Critical improvements to the lives of millions are more likely to be achieved where migration is seen as offering opportunities as well as challenges.

  • Welfare Schemes and Support Mechanisms

    India Labour and Employment Report 2014

    Author : Institute for Human Development | 2016 |

    The India Labour and Employment Report (ILER) aims at bridging this gap by amalgamating information and insights from the available data and research, which is presently available only in a fragmented manner. It also attempts to bring about a better understanding regarding the status, trends and emerging perspectives pertaining to labour markets and employment. Planned as a bi-annual publication to be brought out by the Institute for Human Development (IHD) and the Indian Society of Labour Economics (ISLE), the first Report provides an overview of the labour market and employment outcomes that the Indian economy has delivered during the process of globalization. The Report assesses the gains and losses for labour in the first round of globalization. It reveals many markers of change as well as deep challenges.

  • Migration Patterns

    Climate Change Displaced Persons and Housing, Land and Property Rights

    Author : United Nations (UN) | 2016 |

    This paper , which forms a part of Displacement Solutions’ Climate Change and Displacement Initiative , attempts to begin a structural process of closing this gap by focusing squarely on these issues and proposing strategies to States and the international community on how to best address the housing, land and property dimensions of climate change. It outlines the housing, land and property rights of climate change displaced persons, examines the consequences of climate displacement in four selected countries and proposes a range of rights-based housing, land and property legal and policy measures that can be initiated now in support of climate change displaced persons and their HLP rights. This report urges States to immediately re-double legal and policy efforts within the housing, land and property sectors focused specifically on the rights of climate change displaced persons, and concludes with a series of recommendations to both Governments and the international community designed to improve the HLP rights prospects of climate change displaced persons.

  • Migration Patterns

    Women Migrant Workers’ Remittances in Nepal: Impacts, Issues and Recommendations

    Author : | 2016 |

    Remittances to Nepal are money transfers from Nepalese workers employed outside the country to friends or relatives in Nepal. Nepal received more than 400 billion Nepalese Rupees as remittances income in the fiscal year 2012 (Economic Survey, Central Bank of Nepal). The figure is likely substantially higher as remittances are routinely underestimated and sent through unregulated or unverifiable sources. Remittances can form a ‘family welfare system’ that can help smooth consumption, alleviate liquidity constraints and provide a form of mutual assistance.

  • Migration Patterns

    Adolescents’ Rights, Gender and Migration

    Author : Global Migration Group (GMG) | 2016 |

    This report reviews the literature and preliminary evidence on the impacts of migration on adolescents’ welfare and access to the realization of their rights. The review allows for identifying gaps in the evidence required for policy formulation. It stresses the need to approach adolescents´ migration from a gender and rights-focused lens and argues that adolescence is a vulnerable stage. Migration can add vulnerabilities and barriers for developing young peoples’ capacities for functioning in society and accessing their rights. An examination of migration-oriented policies in labor sending countries offers suggestions for strengthening migrant adolescents´ capacities through appropriate policies and interventions.

  • Migration Patterns

    Trend and Impact Analysis of Internal Displacement due to the Impacts of Disaster and Climate Change

    Author : Center for Environmental and Geographic Information Services | 2016 |

    The issue of 'climate change induced forced migration' has receive immense importance in recent discourses. It is evident that the greatest single impact of climate change might be on human migration/displacement; an development estimation of the IPCC First Assessment Report 1990 (IPCC AR1) predicted migration of 150 million people by 2050. More recent studies show an even more terrifying figure of climate change induced migrants: a ten-fold increase from today's entire population of documented refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs). This means that by 2050 one in every 45 people in the world and one in every 7 people in Bangladesh will become displaced by climate change. Although many scholarly articles have warned about future floods of climate change induced migrants, no policy measures have yet been taken; even the terms and concepts referring to climate change induced migrants are found dissimilar throughout the literatures.

  • Migration Patterns

    Poverty and Rural-Urban Migration

    Author : Suban Kumar Chowdhury,K. M. Mustafizur Rahman | 2016 |

    Rural-urban migration reduces the pressure of population in the rural areas and, thereby, should improve economic conditions and reduce rural poverty. However, disparities between the urban and rural areas in terms of income and employment as well as the unavailability of basic infrastructure and services persist. Urban areas offer more and better opportunities for socio-economic mobility of the poor and rural-urban migration, therefore, will continue. It is evident that the incidence of poverty is higher in the rural areas than that of the urban areas. Moreover, the rate of reduction in the rural areas of poverty is also higher in the rural areas than the urban areas. This might be occurred due to the accelerated pace of rural-urban migration.

  • Migration Patterns

    Women on the Move: Migration, Gender Equality and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development

    Author : Anjali Fleury,Marta Foresti,Tam O’Neil | 2016 |

    This policy brief gives an overview of the opportunities, risks and vulnerabilities female migrants and refugees face and the implications for the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. It describes the realities of migration for women and adolescent girls, focusing on the experiences of those working in a range of ‘care’ professions, from domestic workers to nurses and doctors. Mobility and employment create opportunities for female migrants, but gender norms – shared ideas about the different capabilities and ‘natural’ roles of women and men, girls and boys – also create vulnerabilities, as do institutional failures to address discrimination. Gender norms, prevalent in all countries, are a root cause of the gendered division of labour (whether paid or unpaid work), violence against women and girls, and women’s lack of decision-making power – all of which have particular consequences for female migrants. While gender stereotypes and expectations also shape the migration experience of men and boys, this brief focuses on female migrants because they are most likely to be ‘left behind’ in progress towards the 2030 Agenda.

  • Female Migrants in India

    Author : Vartika Sharma,Avina Sarna,Lopamudra Ray Saraswati | 2016 |

    There has been an increasing feminization of internal labour migration in most developing countries over the past few decades [1–9]. Although the reason for internal migration among female migrants, as reported by existing secondary sources in India, is predominantly marriage, there has been an increase in migration for economic reasons [10–14]. While the only major data sources on migration in India (the Census and National Sample Survey [NSS]), provide information on various dimensions of migration, they fail to provide detailed information on the health-related vulnerabilities of migrants. National Family Health Survey (NFHS) of India too has only a proxy indicator to capture the migration status of the respondent, making migration-focussed analysis of health indicators difficult. Further, a few small-scale surveys were conducted to understand the mechanism of male migration, almost no primary study has been conducted on internal female migrants in India [15, 16]. Women migrants are more likely to be vulnerable than their male counterparts in destination areas with regard to health, physical safety and financial means. The Population Council conducted an exploratory study on internal female migrants in Delhi and Mumbai to better understand their socio-economic and health related vulnerabilities. The study entailed a cross-sectional bio-behavioural survey in Delhi and Mumbai. Women aged 18 years or older, who had migrated and were currently working in either of the two study sites, irrespective of their primary reason for migration, were recruited for the study. A total of 1000 female migrants were interviewed for the study. This comprised of 499 respondents from Delhi and 501 from Mumbai.

  • Health

    No Safety Signs Here

    Author : United Nations Development Report | 2016 |

    This report examines the unique factors or circumstances pertaining to HIV and migration in select countries of South and North East Asia that need to be taken into account while planning a response to the epidemic. It highlights an increasing level of mobility in all the seven countries, both within and across national borders. Although some of this mobility is 'formal', much of it is informal or 'irregular'. Further, the findings reinforce the fact that the type of population mobility and the context and conditions in which it occurs - whether under duress or distress, or in unprepared conditions - affects the vulnerability of migrants and their families to HIV.

  • Migration Patterns

    Profile of Internal Displacement : India

    Author : | 2016 |

    At least 600,000 people are internally displaced in India due to conflicts in the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Gujarat and the North-East. The ceasefire between India and Pakistan in November 2003 substantially improved the security situation along the Line of Control and the international border between Indian- and Pakistani-controlled Kashmir. Information about return movements indicates that many have returned to their villages, although an unverified number still remain in camps. However, attacks and threats by separatist militants continue to hamper the return of India’s largest group of displaced, between 250,000 and 350,000 Kashmiri Hindu Pandits who have been leaving the Kashmir Valley for Jammu and New Delhi since 1989 due to separatist militancy. Violence rose in the run-up to national elections in April and May 2004, and the Pandits who remained in the Valley were once again targeted and many have reportedly fled Kashmir. Communal violence in Gujarat displaced around 100,000 people in February 2002 and the number of people still being displaced is unknown. Despite frequent episodes of violence and discrimination, the Muslim population in Gujarat receives no protection from the state government.

  • Migration Patterns

    Global Report on Internal Displacement

    Author : | 2016 |

    The Global Report on Internal Displacement (GRID) aims to provide a more holistic picture of the phenomenon, regardless of cause. In time for the World Humanitarian Summit in Istanbul, it also aims to highlight displacement as a multidimensional challenge that must involve humanitarian, sustainable development, peace-building, disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation work. It also discusses types of displacement that receive too little attention, such as that associated with generalised criminal violence, gradually-evolving crises such as drought, and development projects. This year’s GRID is an important body of evidence, but it is not the complete picture. We can only be as good as our data, so it also constitutes an appeal for those who collect it to redouble their efforts to provide comprehensive and up-to-date information on all displaced populations.

  • Migration Patterns

    Study on Impacts and Costs of Forced Displacement

    Author : | 2016 |

    The aim of the review is to document the different ways in which researchers have thus far approached the challenge of identifying and estimating the costs and benefits of displacement. As such, the review presents a wide array of factors and dynamics which have been of interest to academics, practitioners and policy-makers over the past four decades; in so doing, it does not presuppose that is will be possible, or indeed desirable, to integrate all of these potential impacts in Phase Two of this project.

  • Labour Markets

    Size, Contribution and Characteristics of Informal Employment in India

    Author : Jeemol Unni | 2016 |

    The Task Force pointed out two structural features of the employment situation in India that made the situation in this country different from others. The first is the distinction between the formal and informal sector employment, or the organized and unorganized sectors as it is called in India, and the second is between wage and self-employment. Large proportions of the work force are engaged in the unorganized sector and are self-employed, as we shall see below. Both these features make it more difficult for the economic policies of the Government of India to have a direct and quick impact on the economy. The positive impact of economic growth may reach the organized sector and wage employed workers faster while making the process of the percolation of the benefits to the rest of the economy more difficult. The purpose of this country case study is to provide estimates of the informal sector and a broader concept of informal employment (defined later) using the official secondary data sources. Some evidence from micro studies will be presented to focus on the kind of workers we refer to and their working conditions.

  • Child Labour

    The Hidden Workforce A Study on Child Labour in the Garment Industry in Delhi

    Author : | 2016 |

    India is home to the largest number of child labourers in the world. The Census of India Survey 2011, Government of India (GoI) estimated 11.7 million children aged 5-14 years (4.5% of total children in this age group) to be working under hazardous occupations and processes as main and marginal workers (Census Survey of India, Government of India). The census data reflects 7% reduction in child labour in India from 2001 to 2011. Similarly, the total number of child labourers in Delhi has also fallen by 7%, from 42,000 in 2001 to 39,000 in 2011. However, it is important to note the simultaneous rise in the work force of the unorganised sector from a mere 8413 in 2001 to 12,466 in 2011. The decadal rise in the number of marginal workers aged 5-14 years in Delhi is almost seven times the decrease in the overall number of child labourers. (Census Survey of India, Government of India, 2011). Despite the reduction in child labour over the past decade, it is difficult to discount the comparative growth of the child labour in the informal sector.

  • Migration Patterns

    Protecting Internally Displaced Persons: A Manual for Law and Policymakers

    Author : | 2016 |

    This manual represents the culmination of a three-year process of research and consultation that I initiated shortly after being appointed Representative of the Secretary General on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons. The drafting of the manual was undertaken in furtherance of my mandate to engage in coordinated advocacy in favor of the protection and respect of the human rights of IDPs and, in particular, to continue my “efforts to further the dissemination, promotion and application of the Guiding Principles and to provide support for efforts to promote capacity-building and the use of the Guiding Principles, as well as the development of domestic legislation and policies” (Human Rights Council Resolution 6/32, paragraph 7(c)). The manual proceeds from the recognition that the Guiding Principles, as the key normative framework for addressing internal displacement, require more precise guidelines in order to be properly implemented.

  • Migration Patterns

    The Remittance Market in India

    Author : Gabi G. Afram | 2016 |

    Millions of migrants worldwide send billions of dollars in remittances each year to their families or communities of origin. In many developing countries, remittances are an important source of family and national income and also are the largest source of external financing. Remittances are better targeted at the needs of the poor than foreign aid or foreign direct investment (FDI), as recipients often depend on remittances to cover daily living expenses, to provide a cushion against emergencies, or to make small investments in business or education. Therefore, remittance services should be safe, efficient, and reliable. This can be achieved by increasing competition, enhancing access to payment system infrastructure, improving transparency, and ensuring a sound and predictable legal and regulatory framework.

  • Migration Patterns

    A Report on Domestic Workers: Conditions, Rights and Responsibilities- A Study of Part-time Domestic Workers in Delhi

    Author : Surabhi Tandon Mehrotra | 2016 |

    Over the last few years, studies on domestic work in India have noted the increase in the numbers of migrant female domestic workers in the cities. They have also observed that domestic work is highly informal in its organisation and highlighted the vulnerabilities of domestic workers1 who belong to the poorer and uneducated sections of society. These studies also note that women from marginalised castes form a substantive group of domestic workers (Kaur 2006; Neetha 2004 and 2008). Domestic workers, in particular women domestic workers, are a constantly growing section of workers in the informal sector of urban India. The last three decades have seen a sharp increase in their numbers, especially in contrast to male domestic workers (Neetha 2004). Research has shown that till 2000, the urban workforce participation of women in India has been lower than those of rural women. Marginal increases were observed in 2000-04 (Rustagi 2009). In 2004, the figure of national urban female workforce participation reached an all-time high of 16 percent.2 In 2004-05, there were 3.05 million women domestic workers in urban India marking an increase by 222 percent from 1999-2000 (Chandrashekhar and Ghosh 2007).

  • Migration Patterns

    Domestic Workers in Thailand: Their Situation, Challenges and The Way Forward

    Author : ILO | 2016 |

    This report reviews and analyzes the situation of both Thai and non-Thai domestic workers in Thailand, in particular those working in private households, by drawing on existing reliable information. It hopes to bring out key issues and recommendations which can contribute to the advocacy efforts of ILO and its partners in Thailand in their campaign on decent work for domestic workers.

  • Living and Working Conditions

    Domestic Workers Across the World: Global and Regional Statistics and the Extent of Legal Protection

    Author : ILO | 2016 |

    This report provides a benchmark for the situation of domestic workers across the world against which progress in implementing the new instruments can be measured. In its first part, it takes stock of global and regional statistics on domestic workers to answer two fairly basic, yet fundamental questions: How many domestic workers are there? How has their number evolved over time? To arrive at some answers, it starts by defining domestic workers in statistical terms and identifies measurement issues that are likely to create a downward bias in global and regional statistics (see Chapter 2). It then presents new ILO estimates on the number of domestic workers across the world, totalling at least 52.6 million men and women across the world in 2010. This represents an increase of more than 19 million since the mid-1990s. Most strikingly, domestic work accounts for 7.5 per cent of women’s wage employment world-wide, and a far greater share in some regions.

  • Migration Patterns

    National Refugee Law for India: Benefits and Roadblocks

    Author : Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies | 2016 |

    India’s status as a preferred refugee haven is confirmed by the steady flow of refugees from many of its subcontinental neighbours as also from elsewhere. India continues to receive them despite its own over-a-billion population with at least six hundred million living in poverty with limited access to basic amenities. However, the Indian legal framework has no uniform law to deal with its huge refugee population, and has not made any progress towards evolving one either; until then, it chooses to treat incoming refugees based on their national origin and political considerations, questioning the uniformity of rights and privileges granted to refugee communities. Indeed, the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) has submitted numerous reports1 urging the promulgation of a national law, or at least, making changes or amendments to the outdated Foreigners Act (1946), which is the current law consulted by authorities with regard to refugees and asylum seekers.

  • Migration Patterns

    Migration and Climate Change: By IOM

    Author : Oli Brown | 2016 |

    In 1990, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) noted that the greatest single impact of climate change could be on human migration—with millions of people displaced by shoreline erosion, coastal flooding and agricultural disruption. Since then various analysts have tried to put numbers on future flows of climate migrants (sometimes called “climate refugees”)—the most widely repeated prediction being 200 million by 2050. But repetition does not make the figure any more accurate. While the scientific argument for climate change is increasingly confident, the consequences of climate change for human population distribution are unclear and unpredictable. With so many other social, economic and environmental factors at work establishing a linear, causative relationship between anthropogenic climate change and migration has, to date, been difficult.

  • Child Labour

    Author : Lok Sabha Secretariat | 2016 |

    Children are the greatest gift to humanity and Childhood is an important and impressionable stage of human development as it holds the potential to the future development of any society. Children who are brought up in an environment, which is conducive to their intellectual, physical and social health, grow up to be responsible and productive members of society. Every nation links its future with the present status of its children. By performing work when they are too young for the task, children unduly reduce their present welfare or their future income earning capabilities, either by shrinking their future external choice sets or by reducing their own future individual productive capabilities. Under extreme economic distress, children are forced to forego educational opportunities and take up jobs which are mostly exploitative as they are usually underpaid and engaged in hazardous conditions. Parents decide to send their child for engaging in a job as a desperate measure due to poor economic conditions.

  • Child Labour

    Child Labour : Planning Commission Report

    Author : Planning Commission, GOI | 2016 |

    Child labour refers to the exploitation of the labour of children who are either too young to work, or are of working age but work under conditions that subject them to risk. It is an unfortunate reality that children worldwide are often forced to undertake work that is physically, psychologically and morally damaging to them. Nonetheless, not all work performed by children is classified as child labour. In fact, some light work that does not interfere with the child’s development, their education, or health, such as helping parents around the home, or earning pocket money outside of school hours or on holidays, can be a positive experience for children. The term child labour therefore does not generally apply to children between the ages of 12-14 that engage in light work or to children between the ages of 15-17 who work in non-hazardous conditions.

  • Child Labour

    Migrant and Child Labor in Thailand’s Shrimp and Other Seafood Supply Chains

    Author : ILO | 2016 |

    The study aims to strengthen the evidence base on child labor and the labor conditions of migrant workers in Thailand’s shrimp and other seafood supply chains, with a particular focus on communities engaged in these industries. Its objective is to provide practical, empirically grounded policy recommendations that can be discussed with different stakeholders and considered by both national and provincial governments and industry. The study draws on a combination of existing evidence and data from the ILO’s work in Thailand and supplementary qualitative information generated through focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and consultations with stakeholders.

  • Child Labour

    Child Labour and Migration From Hue to Saigon, Vietnam

    Author : Susan Kneebone,Sallie Yea,Madhavi Ligam | 2016 |

    Child migration for paid work which results in exploitation is an emerging issue in Vietnam, particularly for child migrants from the central provinces of Vietnam. This research aimed to explore the background and causes leading to child labour migration, the experiences that children have of working as migrants and the process by which they return to their village. It focused on children who migrated from the central province of Hue to Saigon (or Ho Chi Minh City) in the south of Vietnam. The research was conducted between 1 to 5 January 2011 inclusive in Hai Tien village and Vinh Hung Commune, Phu Loc district, Thua Thien Hue Province (Hue Province), Vietnam using ethical procedures approved by the Monash University Human Research and Ethics Committee.

  • Migration Patterns

    Internal Labour Migration in Myanmar Building: An Evidence-Base on Patterns in Migration, Human Trafficking and Forced Labour

    Author : Piyamal Pichaiwongse | 2016 |

    The bulk of information used in this report was collected in April 2015 from 7,295 internal labour migrants, through a survey designed specifically to determine patterns in internal labour migration, human trafficking and forced labour according to national and international law. Respondents were interviewed in 111 townships regarding jobs spanning 273 townships across all of the 14 states/regions in Myanmar. Respondents were chosen from a range of industries, including agriculture, manufacturing, construction, mining, fishing, hotels, food/ beverage services and domestic services, among others. The findings were supplemented with qualitative input from individual interviews and group discussions with internal labour migrants, government authorities and representatives of UN agencies, international non-governmental organizations and local organizations working on migration, trafficking and labour issues.

  • Migration Patterns

    Labour Migration Structures and Financing in Asia

    Author : Rakkee Thimothy,Padmini Ratnayake,S.K Sasikumar,Alvin P. Ang | 2016 |

    With labour flows showing increasing heterogeneity the world over, there is a renewed interest in managing labour mobility so as to enhance the developmental potential of migration. In this context, this research study attempts to enhance the knowledge base pertaining to three core issues: (i) organizational structures to manage labour migration; (ii) various migrant services being extended by the state; and (iii) financing of protection of migrant workers. The study adopts a comparative perspective and provides a detailed analysis of the core issues in relation to India, the Philippines and Sri Lanka, three major labour-sending counties. The conceptual framework of the study presumes that migration management in countries of origin consists of three domains: regulation and (in certain countries) promotion of labour migration and support services; administrative structures; and financing. The study acknowledges the importance of each of these domains while also stressing the interdependence among them.

  • Bonded Labour

    Global Slavery Index 2016

    Author : Walk Free Foundation | 2016 |

    The Global Slavery Index is based on state of the art research methodology that has been developed with the assistance of an independent Expert Working Group, comprised of world leading experts. The methodology has also been subjected to independent external review. This estimate is based on data from nationally representative, random sample surveys conducted in 25 countries. All surveys were conducted face-to-face in key local languages using a standardised instrument. Collectively, these surveys represent 44 percent of the global population. The results of these surveys have been extrapolated to countries with an equivalent risk profile.

  • Migration Patterns

    Population Distribution and Internal Migration in Bangladesh

    Author : Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics | 2016 |

    Bangladesh inherited the long practice of conducting the population census on decennial basis since 1872. The last Population and Housing Census in Bangladesh was conducted during March 15-19, 2011. It is an attempt to provide a general scenario of internal migration and urbanization in Bangladesh using census 2011 and compared with previous censuses. This study would help in achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in relation to internal migration, urbanization, and combat climate change and its impact. The size of the population according to the census 2011 is 144.04 million among which male is 72.11 million and female is 71.93 million. Among the total population 76.7% live in rural and 23.3% live in urban. The change and pattern of population is observed from 1901 to 2011. The size of the population gradually increases. After independence population density in 1974 was 484 and in 2011 density are 976. At present the density is maximum in Dhaka and minimum in Barisal division.

  • Children of Migrant Workers

    Migration Card and Migration Monitoring Software: Tracking and Educating Migrant Children in Gujarat

    Author : Niti Aayog | 2016 |

    The Gujarat Government’s Migration Card initiative helps track inter-state and intra-state migration of school-going children, and the Migration Monitoring Software, introduced in 2009, has enabled tracking and streamlining of implementation in real time. The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) in Gujarat has used this programme successfully to accommodate and educate migrant children in seasonal hostels and in Tent Special Training Programmes. The programme has helped increase retention under elementary education of children who migrate with parents looking for seasonal employment and reduce the drop-out rates of girls in primary education.

  • Migration Patterns

    Europe’s Migration Crisis: A Status Report and the Way Forward

    Author : Migration Policy Institute | 2016 |

    MPI's Demetrios Papademetriou discusses the current policy responses to the refugee and migration crisis at EU and national levels, and possible options for dealing more effectively with the crisis and longer-term integration challenges. Recently returned from several months working in Brussels, Papademetriou sketches the near- and longer-term policy proposals that the European Union and its Member States should consider for Europe, countries of first asylum such as Turkey, and within Syria to help end the chaotic, spontaneous flows of migrants and bring some order and legality to the system while also assuring a greater focus on the longer-term integration challenges.

  • Addressing Climate Change and Migration in Asia and the Pacific

    Author : Asian Development Bank Institute | 2016 |

    Environmental events are already causing people to move in Asia and Pacific region. By taking actions today, governments can reduce the likelihood of future humanitarian crises and maximize the possibilities that people can remain in their communities or – should deteriorating environmental conditions make that impractical – that they have the real option to relocate to a more secure place with livelihood options.

  • Migration Patterns

    Labour Migration in Asia: Building Effective Institutions

    Author : ILO | 2016 |

    Migration is a global and growing phenomenon. Migration comprises different kinds of movements: for employment, for family reasons, for study, or forced migration as a result of conflict or natural disasters. In Asia, international migration is most often about seeking employment, although all kinds of movement can be found. This chapter focuses on labor migration in Asia and by Asians around the world. It also looks at migration of Asians for study, at the labor market situation of Asian emigrants, and at the remittances they send home.

  • Gender

    Gender and Migration: Overview Report

    Author : | 2016 |

    This Overview Report on Gender and Migration takes a broad approach to migration – it looks at the gender dynamics of both international and the lesser-researched internal migration and the interconnections between the two. People may choose to migrate, or have no choice, or the decision may fall somewhere on the continuum between the two. This report therefore covers both forced and voluntary migration, including covering economic and other voluntary migrants, refugees and internally displaced persons and trafficked people. These migrants in turn come through regular (conforming to legal requirements) or irregular channels.

  • Migration Patterns

    Report on Second Annual Employment and Unemployment Survey (2011-12)

    Author : Labour Bureau Chandigarh | 2016 |

    Inter-state differences on Labour Force Participation Rate and/or Unemployment rate also throw some surprises. Some of the States having pro-labour-rights policies have not performed well in terms of unemployment rate. The report is however not intended to arrive at any finding on the trade-off or complimentarily between/of the pro-labourrights and pro-labour reform policies. It may perhaps be advisable for the State Governments to take cognisance of inter-state differences in framing labour-market policies.

  • Migration Patterns

    A Study on the Problems of Migrant Labour in Punjab

    Author : Government of Punjab | 2016 |

    In the Indian context, out-migration is generally from remote backward rural areas of the country (majority from Bihar and UP as reflected in Census 2001), the in migration of referred sections of society is to all major industrial towns in economically better states. The labour recruiters, human trafficking network – all play quite significant role, in the migration of disadvantaged sections of society (poor, landless unskilled, SC/ST/OBC, women, adolescent groups etc). Towns and villages of Punjab are the destination of large-scale spatial mobility of unskilled populations from rural areas of backward states especially Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. These migrants reach Punjab from all over the country individually as well as in groups with or without the help of contractors/agents. According to newspaper (Tribune), the population of migrant labour in Punjab has reached 2.5 million with Ludhiana being its focal point. Punjab’s entire agriculture, paddy, plantation and allied fields such as poultry and dairy are almost fully dependant on migrant labour. The same is reflected in the case of small and medium scale industries. The steel, iron, sugar, wool, knitwear etc. are also heavily dependant on migrant labour.

  • Migration Patterns

    Labor Migration and Inclusive Growth: Toward Creating Employment in Origin Communities

    Author : Gregory Randolph | 2016 |

    This report investigates the intersection of labor migration and the inclusive growth agenda, with the goal of recommending specific policy interventions that can enable the Indonesian government and the governments of other origin countries to (a) limit the threats labor migration poses to inclusive, sustainable and rights-based development, and (b) expand the positive impacts of labor migration by making migrant workers agents in promoting and realizing an inclusive growth agenda in their origin communities.

  • Migration Patterns

    Migration and Remittances Factbook 2016

    Author : | 2016 |

    The Migration and Remittances Factbook 2016 provides a comprehensive picture of emigration, immigration, and remittance flows for 214 countries and territories and 15 country groups, drawing on authoritative, publicly available data. The current edition of the Factbook updates the information in the 2011 edition with data collected from various sources, including national censuses, labor force surveys, and population registers. In addition, for each country and regional grouping from the World Bank’s World Development Indicators (World Bank 2015), it provides selected socioeconomic characteristics such as population, labor force, age-dependency ratio, gross national income per capita, and poverty headcount.

  • Migration Patterns

    Irregular Migration, Migrant Smuggling and Human Rights: Towards Coherence

    Author : International Council on Human Rights Policy | 2016 |

    This report examines the political predicament that confronts governments and other political actors when they address the issue of irregular migration. Primarily, it sets out the rights, and claims to protection, that migrants are entitled to make under international human rights law and other forms of international law. Recognising that states have a responsibility to manage their borders, and that states and the societies they govern have a common interest in promoting their prosperity, it argues that it is not in fact in the real interest of governments to criminalise or scapegoat irregular migration. Migration brings many benefits, as well as some costs. Moreover, it is an ancient feature of human society that states cannot suppress without sacrificing values that are fundamental to social wellbeing and trust. In terms that we hope are realistic, the report argues that, for ethical reasons but also reasons of interest, states should shun xenophobic rhetoric, which permeates most public discussion of irregular migration and policies designed to address it. Instead, states should affirm their commitment to protect the rights of all those who fall within their legal responsibility, including migrants, because they too are human beings entitled to protection.

  • Legal Provisions

    Impact of MGNREGA on Migration and Asset Creation

    Author : | 2016 |

    MGNREGA is one of the most important and largest public programme in India. The main objective of this programme is to provide 100 days of assured employment to rural household and to create sustainable asset. In this paper we have studied the secondary objective of MGNREGA that is to reduce migration and creation of sustainable asset. In this paper we work on migration data for 2007-08 NSSO data. By our analysis we find that Migration is a complex process, it is not always done due to poverty and desperate situation, but complex factors (facilities, education). People are migrating due to lack of adequate agricultural land, inadequate agricultural production, less irrigation facility, and acute water scarcity. At the meso level analysis, correlation between MGNREGA and Migration is very weak. From the literature as well as supported by the micro-assessment, MGNREGA is helping poor and weaker section of the community by providing employment at critical period of a year (seasonal migration). In principal, NREGA can help to reduce temporary migration but is ineffective in long period, when several factors would change together.

  • Political Inclusion

    The State of Environmental Migration 2011

    Author : Dina Ionesco,Pauline Brücker,François Gemenne | 2016 |

    The studies in this publication offer both fresh analysis and novel solutions on migration in the context of natural disasters. They cover a wide variety of situations, including, for instance, proposed infrastructure and public works projects to enhance resilience to flooding in Bangkok, Thailand; an examination of the efficacy of circular migration policies enacted in response to flooding in Colombia; and an analysis of policy responses to the earthquake and tsunami in Japan. These articles offer concrete assessments of current shortcomings in policies related to disaster risk reduction and steps that can be taken to enhance preparedness and response capacity. Other papers examine potential approaches to mitigating slowonset climate change in countries such as Spain and Mexico, highlighting the severe humanitarian consequences resulting from a type of climatic disaster that is too often overlooked. While each paper addresses a specific situation, they all emphasize how migration policy can be used as a tool to manage the pressing needs of vulnerable communities to adapt to disparate environmental hazards.

  • Migration Patterns

    Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Assessing the Evidence

    Author : International Organization for Migration (IOM) | 2016 |

    The consequences of climate change on migration present humanity with an unprecedented challenge. The numbers of storms, droughts and floods have increased threefold over the last 30 years with devastating affects on vulnerable communities, particularly in the developing world. In 2008, 20 million persons have been displaced by extreme weather events, compared to 4.6 million internally displaced by conflict and violence over the same period. How many people will be affected by climate change by 2050? Forecasts vary from 25 million to 1 billion people with a figure of 200 million being the most widely cited estimate. The main purpose of this new book is to suggest concrete ways in which the international community can begin to address the huge gaps in our knowledge relating to the likely impact of climate change on migration. The book does this by taking stock of the existing evidence on the effects of climate change and environmental degradation on migration, providing a comprehensive overview of the findings of recent research studies. Throughout, our focus is centred on how research can best inform policy and provide the evidence which decision-makers will need in the future to plan for and respond to environmentally induced migration.

  • Migration Patterns

    Migration in the Asia-Pacific Region: Trends, Factors, Impacts

    Author : Philip Martin | 2016 |

    This paper provides a comprehensive assessment of international migration in the Asia-Pacific region and reviews internal migration in China. After putting Asia-Pacific migration in a global context, it reviews trends in migration and the impacts of migrants in the major migrant receiving countries, patterns of migration and their development impacts in migrant-sending countries, the human development impacts of migration, and three policy issues, viz, new seasonal worker programs for Pacific Islanders in New Zealand and Australia, required local sponsorship of foreigners in the Gulf countries, and the economic effects of migrants in the US and Thailand. Recent trends in internal migration in China, which shares attributes of international migration because of the hukou (household registration) system, are also assessed.

  • Children of Migrant Workers

    Migration and Child Labour: Exploring Child Migrant Vulnerabilities and Those of Children Left-Behind

    Author : Hans Van De Glind | 2016 |

    Based on a desk review of literature and consultations with field staff, this working paper explores how migration - both internal and international – can affect children’s involvement in child labour. The paper focuses on voluntary migration, excludes child trafficking8 and distinguishes three categories as follows: 1) children who migrate with their parents (i.e. family migration), 2) independent child migrants, and 3) children left-behind by migrant parents. The link to child labour of each of these categories is explored below, followed by a series of strategic considerations for action. In reviewing evidence related to the three categories, both internal and international migration are covered interchangeably

  • Migration Patterns

    Global Migration Trends: An Overview

    Author : Mohammad Waseem | 2016 |

    The Report is a highlight about the data from world over on the migration patterns. The report is a brief on the number of migrants, Main recent global migration trends, Forced migration,Irregular migration, Human Trafficking and Forced Labour, Remittances, National immigration policies, labour and skill shortages

  • Legal Provisions

    Report of Committee for Exploring Feasibility of Alternative Options for Voting by Overseas Electors

    Author : Election Commission of India | 2016 |

    India has large number of its citizens living abroad temporarily or permanently on account of education, employment and other related reasons. These citizens were not able to participate in election process i.e. registration and voting due to the then prevailing law which required that only a citizen ordinarily resident within the territorial limits of a constituency in the country is eligible to be registered as voter in that constituency. Consequently, a huge population of citizens of India living abroad also known as non-resident Indian (NRIs) were not able to enrol themselves as voters in their home constituencies and were not able to exercise their franchise.

  • Synthesis of Important Dicussions on Livelihood and Microfinance Issues of Domestic Workers

    Author : United Nations Development Program (UNDP) | 2016 |

    Domestic workers are largely migrants to cities. The majority of domestic workers are members of the so-called backward and scheduled castes and of late, young girls from tribal communities. Domestic workers income is a primary source of stable earnings for the family. This fact of the centrality of their income to household survival, their residence in slums and the consequent poor access to basic needs such as housing, sanitation, drinking water conditions, limits the work they do, the working hours they keep and constrains their bargaining position in the labor market. Expenditure on transportation and demands of child care and responsibilities of one’s own household work are other important factors that influence the decisions of workplace and negotiations for remuneration of domestic workers.

  • Migration Patterns

    Promoting and Protecting the Rights of Migrant Workers: The Role of National Human Rights Institutions.

    Author : Asia Pacific Forum | 2016 |

    The Asia Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions (APF) is pleased to present Promoting and Protecting the Rights of Migrant Workers: The Role of National Human Rights Institutions. National human rights institutions (NHRIs) – whether they are human rights commissions or ombudsman offices – can play a crucial role in advancing the rights of migrant workers, especially NHRIs that are established in accordance with the Paris Principles.1 The manual aims to support and strengthen the work of NHRIs in countries of origin, transit and destination to identify and respond effectively to the human rights issues facing migrant workers and members of their families.

  • Migration Patterns

    Voluntary Internal Migration : An Update

    Author : Sven Grimm,Priya Deshingkar | 2016 |

    In this overview paper, basic questions related to voluntary internal migration are revisited with a view to adding some of the substantial new field evidence that has emerged in recent years and setting out the policy implications of these findings. The paper addresses internal voluntary migration for paid work. It includes both permanent and temporary migration as well as rural-rural, rural-urban, urban-rural and urban-urban migration. However it does not include forced removal and relocation of people under development and social engineering programmes, trafficking and slavery or displacement by war and civil unrest. It does not discuss nomadic livelihood systems, transhumant graziers or migratory fishing communities although some of the generic arguments will apply to them too.

  • Migration Patterns

    Migration and Remittances Factbook 2011

    Author : World Bank and IMF | 2016 |

    Migration and Remittances Factbook 2011 provides a comprehensive picture of emigration, skilled emigration, immigration, and remittance flows for 210 countries and 15 country groups, drawing on authoritative, publicly available data. The current edition of the Factbook updates the information in the popular 2008 edition with additional data for 71 countries collected from various sources, including national censuses, labor force surveys, population registers, and other national sources. In addition, it provides selected socioeconomic characteristics such as population, labor force, age dependency ratio, gross national income (GNI) per capita, and poverty headcount for each country and regional grouping.

  • Political Inclusion

    Systematic Voters’ Education and Electoral Participation Report (SVEEP)

    Author : Election Commission of India | 2016 |

    The period covered by this document is from the inception of SVEEP in late 2009 till 2014 when the Commission is engaged in conceptualising phase III of SVEEP. At the same time, this is not just a compilation of SVEEP experience in Indian election; it also looks at some of the lessons learnt at national, state, district and constituency levels.

  • Migration Patterns

    Labour Migration Trends and Patterns: Bangladesh, India, and Nepal 2013

    Author : The Asia Foundation | 2016 |

    This regional study commissioned by The Asia Foundation entitled “Labour Migration: Trends and Patterns” examines the patterns and process of labour migration by Nepali and Bangladeshi migrant workers using formal and informal channels for migration primarily to Gulf countries. The study provides insights into the dimensions of both regular and irregular labour migration and reviews the links, if any, with labour exploitation and human trafficking; and examines factors promoting undocumented migration that leads to increased vulnerability. The study examines the challenges posed to safe labour migration along the regional migration corridor of Bangladesh, India, and Nepal. It also highlights some salient features that threaten safe mobility of people between and through these three countries. This study has been strengthened through consultation with government and civil society stakeholders from Bangladesh, Nepal, and India at a workshop co-hosted by The Asia Foundation and the Center for Development Studies (CDS) in Trivandrum, Kerala, India.

  • Migration Patterns

    Inclusive Elections in India: A Study on Domestic Migration and Issues in Electoral Participation

    Author : Tata Institute of Social Sciences | 2016 |

    The study compiled information from academic papers, government and non-government reports on the subject of domestic migration, with a specific emphasis on their political inclusion. The study also checked websites of international organizations such as The World Bank Group, International Monetary Fund and International Labour Organization. It also reviewed old ECI publications and constituent assembly debates to identify if there were any examples from history where special provisions were made for domestic migrants. To ascertain that the study included all relevant secondary data, the team also searched the International Household Survey Network (IHSN) and Dataverse.org to find if there were any publically available micro data that could be used for the present study. However, owing to data availability limitations, only the following secondary data were utilized in this study: (a) Census of India 2001 was used to report migration rates across districts, and (b) Voter turnout data from ECI's statistical reports of elections to state legislative assemblies.

  • Migration Patterns

    Asia-Pacific Migration Report 2015 Migrants' Contributions to Development

    Author : UNESCAP | 2016 |

    The Asia-Pacific Migration Report 2015: Migrants' Contributions to Development provides evidence on how to achieve this target. The Report assesses the development impacts of migrants in the countries of the Asia-Pacific region and provides guidance on the steps countries, regional organizations, civil society actors and others can take to improve these impacts, notably through securing the rights of migrants and ensuring their access to social protection and decent work, both through national policies and multilateral dialogue and cooperation. It builds on subregional reports published on migration in East Asia and South-East Asia in 2008 and South and South-West Asia in 2012. However, the Asia-Pacific Migration Report 2015 is unique in that it is the first report of its kind to address international migration in the region as a whole, from Turkey and the Russian Federation in the west to Kiribati, Samoa and Tonga in the east.

  • Migration Patterns

    Human Development Research Paper : Migration and Human Development in India

    Author : Shaheen Akter,Priya Deshingkar | 2016 |

    The paper discusses how gaps in both the data on migration and the understanding of the role of migration in livelihood strategies and economic growth in India, have led to inaccurate policy prescriptions and a lack of political commitment to improving the living and working conditions of migrants. Field evidence from major migrant employing sectors is synthesised to show that circular migration is the dominant form of economic mobility for the poor; especially the lower castes and tribes. The authors argue that the human costs of migration are high due to faulty implementation of protective legislation and loopholes in the law and not due to migration per se. The paper discusses child labour in specific migration streams in detail stressing that this issue needs to be addressed in parallel. It also highlights the non-economic drivers and outcomes of migration that need to be considered when understanding its impacts. The authors calculate that there are roughly 100 million circular migrants in India contributing 10% to the national GDP. New vulnerabilities created by the economic recession are discussed. Detailed analysis of village resurveys in Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh are also presented and these show conclusively that migration is an important route out of poverty

  • Bonded Labour

    Indispensable Yet Unprotected: Working Conditions of Indian Domestic Workers at Home and Abroad

    Author : | 2016 |

    This study aims to provide policy-makers and service providers with deeper insight into the nature of forced labour and trafficking in this region. Armed with this knowledge, action to combat trafficking in the region will become more effective, finally bringing an end to this unacceptable form of human exploitation.

  • Migration for Development in Thailand: Migration Report 2011

    Author : International Organization for Migration (IOM) | 2016 |

    In recent decades Thailand has evolved into a regional migration hub in South-East Asia, and is concurrently a country of origin, transit and destination for large numbers of both regular and irregular international migrants. With a dynamic economy, there is also a great deal of internal migration, including circular and seasonal migration. However, the highly dynamic nature of migration trends and patterns in Thailand makes the timely formation of comprehensive and coherent migration policies very challenging.

  • Internal Migration in India

    Author : Anjali B Borhade,Rajiv Khandelwal,Ram B.Bhagat,Priya Deshingkar,Indu Agnihotri | 2016 |

    Migrants constitute a ‘floating’ and invisible population, alternating between source and destination areas and remaining on the periphery of society. In India, internal migration has been accorded very low priority by the government, and policies of the Indian state have largely failed in providing any form of legal or social protection to this vulnerable group. Internal migration can expand people’s freedoms and capabilities and make substantial contributions to human development in terms of improved incomes, education and health. Although migration can potentially benefit migrants and their families, there are also heavy costs and risks that compromise the potentially positive outcomes of migration.

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